In the context of the World Wide Web , deep linking is the use of a hyperlink That links to a specific, searchable indexed Generally gold, piece of web content we website (eg, “http://example.com/path/page “), rather than the website’s home page (eg,” http://example.com/ “).

Example

A link to the address https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_linking#Exampleis an example of a deep link. The URL contains all the information needed to Point to a Particular item, in this case the “Example” section of the English Wikipedia Article Entitled “Deep linking” as Opposed to only the information needed to spot to the highest-level home page of Wikipedia at https://www.wikipedia.org/.

Deep linking and HTTP

The technology behind the World Wide Web, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), does not actually make any distinction between “deep” links and any other links-all links are functionally equal. This is intentional; one of the design purposes of the web site. The possibility of so-called “deep” linking is thus built into the Web technology of HTTP and URLs by default-while. According to the World Wide Web ConsortiumTechnical Architecture Group, “the author of the authoritative approach to the world of misuse of technology, and threatens to undermine the functioning of the Web as a whole”. [1]

Usage

Some shopping websites object to other sites making deep links into Their happy Either Because it bypasses advertising on Their hand pages, passes off Their happy As That of the linker gold, like The Wall Street Journal , They charged users for Permanently valid links. Sometimes, deep linking HAS led to legal actions Such As in the 1997 case of Ticketmaster versus Microsoft , Where Microsoft deep-linked to Ticketmaster’s website from ict Sidewalk service. This case was settled when Microsoft and Ticketmaster arranged a licensing agreement. Ticketmaster later filed a similar case against Tickets.com, and the judge in this case ruled that such linking was legal as long as it was clear to which the linked pages belonged. [2] The same terms are also available, writing: “A URL is simply an address, open to the public, like the street address of a building, which, if known, can enable the user to reach the building. . There is nothing to be made of the URL to a copyrightable item, especially the way it is used.

Deep linking and web technologies

Websites built on technologies like Adobe Flash and AJAX often do not support deep linking. This can cause us problems for these sites. For example, they may not be able to save a bookmark to individual pages or states of the site, use the web browser and click on the original page.

However, this is not a fundamental limitation of these technologies. Well-known techniques, and such libraries as SWFAddress [3] and aFocus History Keeper , [4] can be used to provide Flash or AJAX services. [5] [6] [7]

Court rulings

Probably the earliest legal case arising out of deep-linking was the 1996 Scottish case of The Shetland Times . The Shetland News , in which the Times accused the news of appropriating stories on the Times ‘ website as its own. [8] [9]

At the Beginning of 2006, in a search engine box entre les Bixee.com and job website Naukri.com, the Delhi High Court in India prohibited from Bixee.com deeplinking to Naukri.com. [10]

The most important and widely cited US opinions on the Ninth Circuit’s rulings in Kelly v. Arriba Soft Corp. [11] and Perfect 10, Inc. v. Amazon.com, Inc. . [12] In both cases, the court exonerated the use of deep linking. In the second of these cases, the short explained (speaking of defendant Google, whom Perfect 10 had also sued) why linking is not a copyright infringement under US law:

Google does not … display a copy of a full-size photographic images for the purposes of the Copyright Act when Google frames in-line linked images that appear on a user’s computer screen. Because Google’s computers do not store the photographic images, Google does not have a copy of the Copyright Act. In other words, Google does not have any “material objects … in which a work is fixed … and from which the work can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated” and thus can not communicate a copy. Google of HTML, HTML, HTML, HTML, HTML, HTML Providing these HTML instructions is not equivalent to showing a copy. First, the HTML instructions are lines of text, not a photographic image. Second, HTML instructions do not cause them infringing images to appear on the user’s computer screen. The HTML of the user’s browser. The browser then interacts with the computer that stores the infringing image. It is this interaction that causes an infringing image to appear on the user’s computer screen. Google may facilitate the user’s access to infringing images. However, such assistance is only of a general nature and does not constitute direct infringement of the copyright owner’s display rights. … While inline-linking and framing may cause some computer users to believe they are viewing a single Google webpage, the Copyright Act, unlike the Trademark Act,

In December 2006, a Texas court Ruled That by linking a motocross website to videos was Texas-based motocross video output website Did not Constitute fair use. The court subsequently issued an injunction. [13] This case, SFX Motor Sports Inc., c. Davis, was not published in official reports, but is available at 2006 WL 3616983.

In a February 2006 ruling, the Danish Maritime and Commercial Court ( Copenhagen ) found systematic crawling , indexing and deep-linking by portal site ofir.dk of real estate site Home.dk not to conflict with Danish law or the database directive of the European Union . The Court is pleased that the search engines are desirable for the functioning of the Internet of today; and that, when publishing information on the Internet, one must assume-and-accept search engines that link to individual pages of one’s website. [14]

Opt out

Website owners Who do not want search engines to deep link, or only want ’em to index specific pages can request so using the Robots Exclusion Standard ( robots.txt file). People who favor deep linking often feel that they do not provide a robots.txt file by default. citation needed ] Uncommitted Robots Exclusion Standard can not be used robots or other robots. quote needed ]Sites other than search engines can also be found on the web site, so the question of the relevance of the Robots Exclusion Standard to controversies about Deep Linking. The Robots Exclusion Standard does not programmatically enforce its directives so it does not prevent search engines and others who do not follow polite conventions from deep linking.

See also

  • Copyright aspects of hyperlinking and framing
  • Fragment identify
  • Framing (World Wide Web)
  • Inline linking
  • Intellectual Reserve v. Utah Lighthouse Ministry
  • Mobile deep linking

References

  1. Jump up^ Bray, Tim (Sep 11, 2003). “Deep Linking in the World Wide Web” . W3.org . Retrieved May 30, 2007 .
  2. Jump up^ Finley, Michelle (Mar 30, 2000). “Attention Editors: Deep Link Away”. Wired News.
  3. Jump up^ “a swfaddress example: how to deep link your flash tutorial” SQUIBL Blog ” . Squibl.com. 2010-10-14. Archived from the original on 2014-05-25 . Retrieved 2014-06-25 .
  4. Jump up^ “History Keeper – Deep Linking in Flash & JavaScript” . Unfocus.com.
  5. Jump up^ “Deep linking to frames in Flash websites” . Adobe.com.
  6. Jump up^ “Deep Linking for Flash and Ajax” . Asual.com.
  7. Jump up^ “Deep Linking for AJAX” . Blog.onthewings.net.
  8. Jump up^ “Shetland Internet squabble settled out of court” . BBC . 11 November 1997.
  9. Jump up^ For a more extended discussion, see the Wikipedia articleCopyright aspects of hyperlinking and framing.
  10. Jump up^ “High Court Critical On Deeplinking” . EFYtimes.com. Dec 29, 2005. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27 . Retrieved May 30, 2007 .
  11. Jump up^ 336 F.3d 811 (9th Cir 2003).
  12. Jump up^ 487 F.3d 701 (9th Cir 2007).
  13. Jump up^ Declan McCullagh. “Judge: Can not link to the Webcast if copyright owner objects” . News.com . Retrieved May 30, 2007 .
  14. Jump up^ “Udskrift af SØ- & Handelsrettens Dombog” (PDF) (in Danish). Bvhd.dk. February 24, 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 12, 2007 . Retrieved May 30, 2007 .