Eye tracking is the process of measuring the point of gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head. An eye tracker is a device for measuring eye positions and eye movement . Eye trackers are used in research on the visual system , in psychology, in psycholinguistics , marketing, as an input device for human-computer interaction , and in product design. There are a number of methods for measuring eye movement. The most popular variant uses video from which the eye position is extracted. Other methods use search coils or are based on the electrooculogram .

History

In the 1800s, studies of eye movement were made using direct observations.

In 1879 in Paris, Louis Emile Javal observed that reading does not involve a smooth sweeping of the eyes along the text, but rather a series of short stops (called fixations) and quick saccades . [1] This observation raised important questions about reading, which questions were explored during the 1900s: On which words do the eyes stop? For how long? When do they regress to already seen words?

An example of bindings and saccades over text. This is the typical pattern of eye movement during reading. The eyes never move smoothly over still text.

Edmund Huey [2] built an early eye tracker, using a lens of contact with a hole for the pupil . The lens was connected to an aluminum pointer that moved in response to the movement of the eye. Huey studied and quantified regressions (only a small proportion of saccades are regressions),

The first non-intrusive eye-trackers were built by Guy Thomas Buswell in Chicago, using beams of light that were reflected on the eye and then recording them on film. Buswell made systematic studies into reading [3] and picture viewing. [4]

In the 1950s, Alfred L. Yarbus [5] did important eye tracking research and his 1967 book is often quoted. He showed that the subject has a very large influence on the subject’s eye movement. He also wrote about the relationship between fixations and interest:

“All the records … show conclusively that the character of the eye movement is completely independent of or just [6] The cyclical pattern in the examination of pictures “is dependent on not only what is shown on the picture, but also the problem facing the observer and the information that he hopes to gain from the picture.” [7]
This study by Yarbus (1967) is often referred to as evidence on the subject of a person.
“Eye movement reflects the attention of the eye” (The thought of eye movements) It is easy to determine which of the following is the case for the observation of the eye (and, consequently, its thought), in what order, and how often. ” [6]
“The observer’s attention is frequently drawn to that which is not important, but in his opinion, may be so often. . ” [8]
“… when changing its points of fixation, the eye of the eye to the elements of the eye.” [9]
In the 1970s, eye-tracking research rapidly expanded, particularly reading research. A good overview of the research in this period is given by Rayner . [13]

In 1980, Just and Carpenter [14] formulated the influential Strong Eye-mind Hypothesis , which “is not appreciable. If this hypothesis is correct, then, it is a question of cognitive behavior, and it is well understood. The hypothesis is often taken for granted by researchers using eye-tracking. However, gauze-contingent techniques offer an interesting option in order to say angle overt and covert attentions, to differentiate what is fixed and what is processed.

During the 1980s, the eye-mind hypothesis was often questioned in light of covert attention, [15] [16] the attention to something that is not looking at, which people often do. If covert attention is common during eye-tracking recordings, the resulting scan-path and fixation patterns would have failed, but only where the eye has been looking, failing to indicate cognitive processing.

The 1980s also saw the birth of using eye-tracking to answer questions related to human-computer interaction. Specifically, researchers investigated how to search for commands in computer menus. [17] additional, computers allowed searchers to use eye-tracking results in real time, mainly to help disabled users. [18]

More recently, there has been growth in the use of different computers. Specific questions researchers are related to different users. [19] The results of the eye tracking research can lead to changes in the design of the interface. Yet another recent area of ​​research focuses on Web development. This review is a summary of the original version of the text and has not been published here. [20]

According to Hoffman, [21] current consensus is that visual attention is always slightly (100 to 250 ms) ahead of the eye. But as soon as you have attention, you will want to follow. [22]

We still can not infer specific cognitive processes directly from a fixation on a particular object in a scene. [23] For instance, a fixation on a face in a picture may indicate recognition, liking, dislike, puzzlement etc. Therefore, eye tracking is often combined with other methodologies, such as introspective verbal protocols .

Tracker types

Eye-trackers measure the rotations of the eye in one of many ways, but principally they fall into three categories: (i) measurement of the movement of an object (normally, a special contact lens) attached to the eye; (ii) optical tracking without direct contact to the eye; and (iii) measurement of electric potentials using electrodes placed around the eyes.

Eye-attached tracking

The first type is an attachment to the eye, such a special contact lens with an embedded mirror or magnetic field sensor, and the movement of the attachment is measured with the assumption that it does not slip significantly to the rotates eye. Measurements with tight-fitting contact lenses have been shown to be extremely sensitive, and magnetic search coils are the method of choice for researchers studying the dynamics and underlying physiology of eye movement. This method allows the measurement of eye movement in horizontal, vertical and torsion directions. [24]

Optical tracking

An eye-tracking head-mounted display . Each eye has an LED light source (gold-color metal) on the side of the lens, and a camera under the lens.

The second broad category uses some non-contact, optical method for measuring eye motion. Light, typically infrared, is specially designed for optical sensors. The information is then analyzed to extract eye rotation from changes in reflections. Video-based eye trackers typically uses the corneal reflection (the first Purkinje image ) and the center of the pupil has features to track over time. A more sensitive type of eye-tracker, the dual-Purkinje eye tracker, [25]uses reflections from the front of the cornea (first Purkinje image) and the back of the lens (fourth Purkinje image) as features to track. A still more sensitive method of tracking the eye, these features are the retinal blood vessels, and follow these features as the eye rotates. Optical methods, particularly those based on video recording, are widely used for gaze-tracking and are favored for being non-invasive and inexpensive.

See also: Video-oculography

Electric potential measurement

The third category uses electrical potentials measured with electrodes placed around the eyes. The eyes are the source of a steady electric potential which can be detected in total darkness and if the eyes are closed. It can be modeled to be generated by a dipole with its positive pole at the cornea and its negative pole at the retina. Electrooculogram (EOG) is the electric signal that can be derived. If the eyes move from the center towards the periphery, the retina approaches one electrode while the cornea approaches the opposing one. This change in the orientation of the dipole and the consequence of the electric potential field results in a measured EOG signal. Inversely, by analyzing these changes in eye movement can be tracked. Due to the discretization given by the common electrode setup, two separate movement components – a horizontal and a vertical – can be identified. A third EOG component is the radial EOG channel, [26]which is the average of the EOG channels referenced to some posterior scalp electrode. This radial EOG channel is sensitive to the saccadic spike potentials stemming from the extra-ocular muscles at the onset of saccades, and allows reliable detection of even miniature saccades. [27]

Due to potential drift and variable relations between the EOG signal amplitudes and the saccade sizes, it is challenging to use EOG for measuring slow eye movement and detecting gauze direction. EOG is, however, a very robust technique for measuring saccadic eye movement associated with gaze shifts and detecting blinks . Contrary to video-based eye-trackers, EOG allows the recording of eye movements, and can thus be used in sleep research. It is a very light-weight approach, in contrast to current video-based eye-trackers, requires only very low computational power; works under different lighting conditions; and can be implemented as an embedded, self-contained wearable system. [28]It is thus the method of choice for measuring eye movement in mobile daily life-situations and REM phases during sleep. The major disadvantage of EOG is its relative poor gaze-direction accuracy compared to a video tracker. That is, it is difficult to determine exactly where the subject is, but the time of eye movements can be determined.

Technologies and techniques

The most widely used current designs are video-based eye-trackers. A camera focuses on one or both eyes and records eye movement as the viewer looks at some kind of stimulus. Most modern eye-trackers use the center of the pupil and infrared / near-infrared non-collimated light to create corneal reflections (CR). The vector between the pupil center and the corneal reflections can be used to look at the surface or the gauze direction. A simple calibration procedure is usually used before using the eye tracker. [29]

Two general types of infrared / near-infrared (also known as active light) eye-tracking techniques are used: bright-pupil and dark-pupil. Their difference is based on the location of the source illumination with respect to the optics. If the illumination is coaxial with the optical path, then the eye acts as a retroreflector to the light reflects the retina creating a bright pupil effect similar to red eye . If the illumination source is offset from the optical path, then the pupil appears dark because the retroreflection of the retina is directed away from the camera. [30]

Bright-pupil tracking creates greater iris / pupil contrast, allowing more robust eye-tracking with all iris pigmentation, and greatly reduced interference caused by eyelashes and other obscuring features. [31] It also allows tracking in lighting conditions from total darkness to very bright. Bright-pupil techniques are nevertheless not effective for tracking outdoors, as extraneous IR sources interfere with monitoring. quote needed ]

Another, less used, method is known as passive light. It uses visible light to illuminate, which causes some distractions to users. [30] Another challenge with this method is that the contrast of the pupil is less than the active light methods, therefore, the center of iris is used for calculating the vector instead. [32] This calculation needs to detect the boundary of the iris and the white sclera ( limbus tracking). It presents another challenge for vertical eye movements due to obstruction of eyelids. [33]

Eye-tracking setups vary greatly: some are head-mounted, some require the head to be stable (for example, with a chin rest), and some function remotely and automatically track the head during motion. Most of the time, but at least 30 Hz. Although 50/60 Hz is more common, today many video-based eye trackers run at 240, 350 or even 1000/1250 Hz, measure saccade dynamics.

Eye movements are divided into Typically fasteners and jerks – When the eye gauze breaks in a clear position, and when to it moves to Reviews another position respectivement. The resulting series of fixations and saccades is called a scanpath . Smooth pursuit describes the eye following a moving object. Fixational eye movements include micro saccadas: small, involuntary saccadas that occur during attempted fixation. Most information from the eye is made during a fixation or smooth pursuit, but not during a saccade. citation needed ] The central one or two degrees of the visual angle (that area of ​​the visual field which falls on the fovea) provide the bulk of visual information; the input of larger eccentricities (the periphery) has less resolution and little to no color, Hence, the locations of fixations or smooth pursuit along with a scanpath show what information have been made during an eye-tracking session. On average, bindings last for around 200ms during the reading of linguistic text, and 350ms during the viewing of a scene. Preparing a saccade towards a new goal takes around 200 ms. quote needed ]

Scanpaths are useful for analyzing cognitive intent, interest, and salience. Other biological factors may affect the scanpath as well. Eye tracking in human-computer interaction (HCI) typically investigates the analysis for usability purposes, or as a method of input in gaze-contingent displays , also known as gaze-based interfaces . [34]

Data presentation

This paper is used in a variety of ways, and is used in a variety of ways that it is visually visually represented, so that the visual behavior of the user can be graphically resumed. The following visualizations are rarely the basis of research results, since they are limited in their scope of analysis. most commonly used:

Animated representations of a dot on the interface This method is used When the visual behavior is indicating indication Individually Examined Where the user Focused Their gauze in Each Moment, complemented with a small path That indicates the previous jerky movements, as seen in the image.

Static representations of the saccade path This method is quite similar to the one described above. A higher level of expertise is required to interpret this.

Heat maps An alternative static representation, used mainly for the agglomerated analysis of the visual exploration patterns in a group of users, differing from both methods explained before. In these representations, the ‘hot’ areas with higher density designate where the users focus their gauze (not their attention) with a higher frequency. Heat maps are the best known visualization technique for eyetracking studies. [35]

Blind zones maps, or focus maps This method is a simplified version of the information provided by the user. which areas were not seen by the users.

Eye-tracking vs. gaze-tracking

Eye-trackers necessarily measure the rotation of the eye with respect to some frame of reference. This is usually tied to the measuring system. Thus, if the measuring system is head-mounted, the EOG or a video-based system mounted to a helmet, then eye-in-head angles are measured. To reach the line of sight in world coordinates, the head must be kept in a constant position or its movements must be tracked as well. In these cases, head direction is added to the eye-in-head direction to determine directional gaze.

If the measuring system is a table-mounted system, it is also equipped with a remote control system (“remote”) systems, then gaze angles are measured directly in world coordinates. Typically, in these situations head movements are prohibited. For example, the head position is a bar or a forehead support. Then a head-centered reference frame is identical to a world-centered reference frame. Gold colloquially, the eye-in-head position directly determines the directional gaze.

Some results are available on the human eye. [36] [37] The relative position of eye and head, even with constant directional gaze, influences neuronal activity in higher visual areas. [38]

Eye tracking in practice

A great deal of research has been made in the context of the mechanisms and dynamics of eye rotation, but the goal of eye-tracking is most often to estimate directional gaze. Users can be interested in what features of an image draw the eye, for example. It is important to realize that the eye-tracker does not provide absolute directional gauze, but rather does it. In this article, the subject of this article is of the opinion that it is necessary to consider the subject of a certain number of points, while the eye tracker records the value that corresponds to each gaseous position. (Even those techniques that are not specific to the exact position of the gaze, because there is no specific anatomical feature that marks the exact point where the visual axis meets the retina,

Each method of eye-tracking has advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of an eye-tracking system depends on considerations of cost and application. There are offline methods and online procedures like AttentionTracking . There is a trade-off between cost and sensitivity, with the most sensitive systems costing many tens of thousands of dollars and requiring considerable expertise to operate properly. Advances in computer and video technology are relatively inexpensive and relatively easy to use. However, because of misaligned or poorly calibrated system can produce wildly erroneous data.

Eye-tracking while driving a car in a difficult situation

The eye movement of two groups of drivers has been filmed by a team of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology: Novice and experienced drivers had their eye-movement recorded while approaching a bend of a narrow road. The series of images has been condensed from the original film frames [40] to show 2 eye fixations for better understanding.

Each of these stills corresponds to approximately 0.5 seconds in realtime.

The series of images shows an example of eye fixations # 9 to # 14 of a typical novice and an experienced driver.

This article is not available in English, French, German, English, French, English, French, English, French, English, French, English, French, English, French,

In the middle images, the driver is now fully concentrating on the location. The novice driver concentrates his view on the parked car.

In the bottom image the novice is busy estimating the distance entre les left wall and the parked car, while the Experienced driver can use His peripheral vision For That and still concentrate His view on the dangerous points of the curve: If a car Appears there, he has to give way, ie stop to the right instead of passing the parked car. [41]

Eye-tracking of younger and elderly people while walking

While walking, the elderly are more dependent on the subject than do younger subjects. Their walking speed is reduced by a visual field , probably caused by a deteriorated peripheral vision.

Younger subjects make use of both their central and peripheral vision while walking. Their peripheral vision allows you to control the process of walking. [42]

Applications

A wide variety of disciplines use eye-tracking techniques, including cognitive science ; psychology (notably psycholinguistics , the visual world paradigm); human-computer interaction (HCI); marketing research and medical research (neurological diagnosis). Specific applications include the tracking of the eye movement in language reading , the music reading , the human activity recognition , the perception of advertising, and the playing of sports. [43] Uses include:

  • Cognitive Studies
  • Medical Research
  • Laser refractive surgery
  • Human Factors
  • Computer Usability
  • Translation Process Research
  • Vehicle Simulators
  • In-vehicle Research
  • Training Simulators
  • Fatigue Detection
  • Virtual Reality
  • Adult Research
  • Infant Research
  • Teenager Research
  • Geriatric Research
  • Primate Research
  • Sports Training
  • fMRI / MEG / EEG
  • Commercial eye tracking (web usability, advertising, marketing, automotive, etc.)
  • Finding good clues
  • Communication systems for disabled
  • Improved image and video communications
  • Product development
  • Employee training
  • Computer Science: Activity Recognition [44] [45] [46]
  • Image and video compression
  • Computer vision [47]

Commercial applications

In recent years, the high sophistication and accessibility of eye-tracking technologies have generated a great deal of interest in the commercial sector. Applications include web usability , advertising, sponsorship, package design and automotive engineering. In general, commercial eye-tracking studies function by presenting a target stimulus to a sample of Consumers while an eye trackeris used to record the activity of the eye. Examples of target stimuli may include websites; television programs; sporting events; commercial films; magazines and newspapers; packages; shelf displays; consumer systems (ATMs, checkout systems, kiosks); and software. The resulting data can be statistically analyzed and graphically rendered to provide evidence of specific visual patterns. By examining fixations, saccades , pupil dilation, blinks and a variety of other behaviors, researchers can determine a great deal about the effectiveness of a given medium or product. While some companies complete this type of research, there are many private companies that offer eye-tracking services and analysis.

One of the most prominent fields of commercial eye-tracking research is web usability. citation needed ] Whereas the traditional way of helping people in the marketplace is to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the marketplace and the marketplace. features are the most eye-catching, which features confusion and which are ignored altogether. Specifically, eye-tracking can be used to assess search efficiency, branding, online advertisements, navigation usability, overall design and many other site components. Analyzes may target a prototype or competitor site in addition to the main customer site.

Eye-tracking is commonly used in a variety of advertising media. Commercials, print ads, online ads and sponsored programs are all conducive to analysis with current eye-tracking technology. For instance in newspapers, eye-tracking studies can be mixed with the news in order to catch the reader’s eyes. [48] Analyzes focus on visibility of a target product or logo in the context of a magazine, newspaper, website, or televised event. One example is an analysis of eye movements in the Yellow Pages. The study focuses on what particular features. The study revealed that ad size, graphics, color, and copy all influence attention to advertisements. Knowing this allows researchers to assess the size of the market. As a result, an advertiser can quantify the success of a current view of current attention. [49] Another example of this is that a search engine is more likely than the first organic result. [50]

Eye-tracking also provides package designers with the opportunity to examine the visual behavior of a consumer who is interacting with a target package. This tracking can be used to analyze distinctiveness, attractiveness and the tendency of the package to be chosen for purchase. Eye-tracking is often used in the prototype stage. Prototypes are tested against each other and those of competitors to examine which specific features are associated with high visibility and appeal.

One of the most promising applications of eye-tracking research is in the field of automotive design. Research is currently underway to integrate eye-tracking cameras into automobiles. The goal of this endeavor is to provide the vehicle with the ability to assess the real-time behavior of the driver. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimates that drowsiness is the primary causal factor in 100,000 police-reported accidents per year. Another NHTSA study suggests that 80% of collisions occur within three seconds of distraction. By equipping automobiles with the ability to monitor drowsiness, inattention, and cognitive engagement , driving safety could be dramatically enhanced. Lexus claims to have its LS 460with the first driver-monitor system in 2006, providing a warning if the driver takes his or her eyes off the road. [51]

Beginning in 2005, eye-tracking has been used in communication systems for disabled persons, allowing the user to speak, sending e-mail, browsing the Internet and performing other such activities, using only their eyes. [52] Eye-control works Even When the User has involuntary movement as a result of Cerebral palsy or other disabilities, and For Those Who-have glasses or other physical interference Which would limit the effectiveness of older eye-control systems. quote needed ]

Eye-tracking HAS aussi seen minute use autofocus in still-camera equipment Where users can focus was subject simply by looking at it through the viewfinder .

See also

  • AttentionTracking
  • Eye movement
  • Eye movement in language reading
  • Eye movement in music reading
  • Eye Tracking Device
  • Fovea
  • Foveated imaging
  • Gaze-contingency paradigm
  • Marketing research
  • Mouse-Tracking
  • Peripheral vision
  • Jerky
  • face SDK

Notes

  1. Jump up^ Reported in Huey 1908/1968.
  2. Jump up^ Huey, Edmund. The Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading (Reprint) . MIT Press 1968 (originally published 1908).
  3. Jump up^ Buswell (1922, 1937)
  4. Jump up^ (1935)
  5. Jump up^ Yarbus 1967
  6. ^ Jump up to:b Yarbus 1967 , p. 190
  7. Jump up^ Yarbus 1967, p. 194
  8. Jump up^ Yarbus 1967, p. 191
  9. Jump up^ Yarbus 1967, p. 193
  10. Jump up^ Hunziker, HW (1970). Visual Information Information and Intelligences: Eine Untersuchung über die Augenfixationen beim Problemlösen. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Psychologie und ihre Anwendungen, 1970, 29, No. 1/2 (english abstract:http://www.learning-systems.ch/multimedia/forsch1e.htm)
  11. Jump up^ http://www.learning-systems.ch/multimedia/eyemovements problem solving.swf
  12. Jump up^ http://www.learning-systems.ch/multimedia/forsch1e.htm
  13. Jump up^ Rayner (1978)
  14. Jump up^ Just and Carpenter (1980)
  15. Jump up^ Posner (1980)
  16. Jump up^ Wright & Ward (2008)
  17. Jump up^ [1]
  18. Jump up^ [2],[3]
  19. Jump up^ [4],[5],[6]
  20. Jump up^ [7]
  21. Jump up^ Hoffman 1998
  22. Jump up^ Deubel, Heiner (1996). “Saccade” “Evidence for a common attentional mechanism” . Vision Research . 36 : 1827-1837. doi : 10.1016 / 0042-6989 (95) 00294-4 .
  23. Jump up^ Holsanova 2007
  24. Jump up^ David A. Robinson: IEEE Transactions on Bio-Medical Electronics, October 1963, 137-145 (PDF) -A method of measuring eye movement using a magnetic field
  25. Jump up^ Crane, HD; Steele, CM (1985). “Generation-V dual-Purkinje-picture eyetracker”. Applied Optics . 24 (4): 527-537. doi : 10.1364 / AO.24.000527 .
  26. Jump up^ Elbert, T., Lutzenberger, W., Rockstroh, B., Birbaumer, N., 1985. Removal of ocular artifacts from the EEG. A biophysical approach to the EOG. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 60, 455-463.
  27. Jump up^ Keren, AS; Yuval-Greenberg, S .; Deouell, LY (2010). “Saccadic spike potentials in gamma-band EEG: Characterization, detection and suppression”. NeuroImage . 49 : 2248-2263. doi : 10.1016 / j.neuroimage.2009.10.057 . PMID  19874901 .
  28. Jump up^ Bulling, A .; Roggen, D .; Tröster, G. (2009). “Wearable EOG goggles: Seamless sensing and context-awareness in everyday environments”. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments (JAISE) . 1 (2): 157-171. [8]
  29. Jump up^ Witzner Hansen, Dan; Qiang Ji (March 2010). “In the Eye of the Beholder: A Survey of Models for Eyes and Gaze” . IEEE Trans. Anal pattern. Mach. Intell . 32 (3): 478-500. doi : 10.1109 / tpami.2009.30 .
  30. ^ Jump up to:b Gneo Massimo; Schmid, Maurizio; Conforto, Silvia; D’Alessio, Tommaso (2012). “A free geometry model-independent neural eye-gaze tracking system”. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation . 9 (1): 82. doi : 10.1186 / 1743-0003-9-82 .
  31. Jump up^ The Eye: A Survey of Human Vision; Wikimedia Foundation
  32. Jump up^ Sigut, J; Sidha, SA (February 2011). “Iris center corneal reflection method for gauze tracking using visible light”. IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering . 58 (2): 411-9. doi : 10.1109 / tbme.2010.2087330 . PMID  20952326 .
  33. Jump up^ Hua, H; Krishnaswamy, P; Rolland, JP (May 15, 2006). “Video-based eyetracking methods and algorithms in head-mounted displays”. Optics Express . 14 (10): 4328-50. doi : 10.1364 / oe.14.004328 . PMID  19516585 .
  34. Jump up^ Majaranta, P., Aoki, H., Donegan, M., Hansen, DW, Hansen, JP, Hyrskykari, A., Räihä, KJ,Gaze Interaction and Applications of Eye Tracking: Advances in Assistive Technologies, IGI Global , 2011
  35. Jump up^ Nielsen, Jakob. Pernice, Kara. (2010). “[9]Eyetracking Web Usability.” New Rideres Publishing. p. 11.ISBN 0-321-49836-4. Google Book Search. Retrieved on October 28, 2013.
  36. Jump up^ Einhäuser, W; Moeller, GU; Schumann, F; Conradt, J; Vockeroth, J; Bartl, K; Schneider, E; König, P (2009). “Eye-head coordination during free exploration in human and cat”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences1164 : 353-366.
  37. Jump up^ Einhäuser W, Schumann F, S Gardens, Bartl K, Böning G, Schneider E and König P (2007). Human eye-head co-ordination in natural exploration. Network: Computation in Neural Systems 18: 267-297. Electronical publication:doi:10.1080 / 09548980701671094
  38. Jump up^ Andersen, RA; Bracewell, RM; Barash, S .; Gnadt, JW; Fogassi, L. (1990). “LIP and 7a of macaque”. Journal of Neuroscience . 10 (4): 1176-1196.
  39. Jump up^ Hans-Werner Hunziker, (2006) The treasure of the Lesers: foveale und periphere Wahrnehmung – vom Buchstabieren zur Lesefreude [Transmedia Stäubli Verlag Zürich 2006ISBN 978-3-7266-0068-6Based on data from: Cohen, AS (1983). Informationsaufnahme beim Befahren von Kurven, Psychology für die Praxis 2/83, Newsletter of the Schweizerischen Stiftung für Angewandte Psychologie
  40. Jump up^ Cohen, AS (1983). Informationsaufnahme beim Befahren von Kurven, Psychology für die Praxis 2/83, Newsletter of the Schweizerischen Stiftung für Angewandte Psychologie
  41. Jump up^ Pictures from: Hans-Werner Hunziker, (2006) Im Auge des Lesers: foveale and periphere Wahrnehmung – vom Buchstabieren zur Lesefreude [In the eye of the reader: foveal and peripheral perception – from letter to the joy of reading] Transmedia Stäubli Verlag Zürich 2006ISBN 978-3-7266-0068-6
  42. Jump up^ Itoh N, Fukuda T. (2002) Comparative study of eye movement in the area of ​​central and peripheral vision and use by young and elderly walkers. Percept Mot Skills. 2002 Jun; 94 (3 pt. 2): 1283-91
  43. Jump up^ See, eg,newspaper reading studies.
  44. Jump up^ Bulling, A. et al:Robust Recognition of Reading Activity in Transit Using Wearable Electrooculography, Proc. of the 6th International Conference on Pervasive Computing (Pervasive 2008), pp. 19-37, Sydney, Australia, May 2008.
  45. Jump up^ Bulling, A. et al .:Eye Movement Analysis for Activity Recognition, Proc. of the 11th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2009), pp. 41-50, Orlando, United States, September 2009.
  46. Jump up^ Bulling, A. et al .:Eye Movement Analysis for Activity Recognition Using Electrooculography, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (TPAMI).
  47. Jump up^ Karthikeyan, S. et al .:From Where and How to What We See, Proc. of International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV 2013), pp. 19-37, Sydney, Australia, December 2013.
  48. Jump up^ “Eye Tracking Study: The New York Times vs. The Wall Street Journal”
  49. Jump up^ Lohse, Gerald; Wu, DJ (1 February 2001). “Eye Movement Patterns on Chinese Yellow Pages Advertising”. Electronic Markets . 11 (2): 87-96. doi :10.1080 / 101967801300197007 .
  50. Jump up^ “Eye Tracking Study: The Importance of Using Google Authorship in Search Results”[10]
  51. Jump up^ “LS460 achieves a world-first in preventative safety” . NewCarNet.co.uk. 2006-08-30. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27 . Retrieved 2007-04-08 .
  52. Jump up^ Michelle Cometa (February 23, 2009). “Student learns to control computer with a blink of an eye” . Rochester Institute of Technology . Retrieved August 20, 2011 .

References

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  • Buswell, GT (1922). Fundamental reading habits: A study of their development. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Buswell GT (1935). How People Look at Pictures. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press 137-55. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
  • Buswell, GT (1937). How adults read. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Carpenter, Roger HS; Movements of the Eyes (2nd ed.). Pion Ltd, London, 1988. ISBN  0-85086-109-8 .
  • Cornsweet, TN; Crane, HD (1973). “Accurate two-dimensional eye tracker using first and fourth Purkinje images”. J Opt Soc Am . 63 : 921-8. doi : 10.1364 / josa.63.000921 .
  • Cornsweet, TN (1958). “New technique for the measurement of small eye movements”. JOSA . 48 : 808-811. doi : 10.1364 / josa.48.000808 .
  • Deubel, H .; Schneider, WX (1996). “Saccade” “Evidence for a common attentional mechanism”. Vision Research . 36 : 1827-1837. doi : 10.1016 / 0042-6989 (95) 00294-4 . PMID  8759451 .
  • Duchowski, AT, “A Breadth-First Survey of Eye Tracking Applications,” Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers (BRMIC), 34 (4), November 2002, pp. 455-470.
  • Eizenman, M; Hallett, PE; Frecker, RC (1985). “Power spectra for ocular drift and tremor”. Vision Res . 25 : 1635-40.
  • Ferguson RD (1998). Servo tracking system utilizing phase-sensitive detection of reflectance variations. US Patent # 5,767,941
  • Hammer, DX; Ferguson, RD; Magill, JC; White, MA; Elsner, AE; Webb, RH (2003). “Compact laser scanning ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker”. Appl Opt . 42 : 4621-32. doi : 10.1364 / ao.42.004621 .
  • Hoffman, JE (1998). Visual attention and eye movements. In H. Pashler (ed.), Attention (pp. 119-154). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
  • Holsanova, J. (forthcoming) Picture viewing and picture descriptions, Benjamins.
  • Huey, EB (1968). The psychology and pedagogy of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Originally published 1908)
  • Jacob, RJK & Karn, KS (2003). Eye Tracking in Human-Computer Interaction and Usability Research: Ready to Deliver the Promises. In R. Radach, J. Hyona, & H. Deubel (eds.), The Mind’s Eye: Cognitive and Applied Aspects of Eye Movement Research (pp. 573-605). Boston: North-Holland / Elsevier.
  • Just MA, Carpenter PA (1980) A theory of reading: from eye fixation to comprehension. Psychol Rev 87: 329-354
  • Liechty, J, Pieters, R., & Wedel, M. (2003). The Representation of Local and Global Exploration Modes in Eye Movements through the Bayesian Hidden Markov Models. Psychometrika, 68 (4), 519-542.
  • Mulligan, JB, (1997). Recovery of Motion Parameters from Distortions in Scanned Images. Proceedings of the NASA Image Registration Workshop (IRW97), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD
  • Ott, D; Daunicht, WJ (1992). “Eye movement measurement with the laser scanning ophthalmoscope”. Clin. Vision Sci . 7 : 551-556.
  • Pirri, F., Pizzoli, M., Rudi, A, (2011). A general method for the point of view estimation in 3D space. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2011 IEEE Conference on, 921-928. doi : 10.1109 / CVPR.2011.5995634
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  • Rayner, K (1978). “Eye movements in reading and information processing”. Psychological Bulletin . 85 : 618-660. doi : 10.1037 / 0033-2909.85.3.618 . PMID  353867 .
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  • Yarbus, AL (1967), Eye Movements and Vision , New York: Plenum . (Originally published in Russian 1962)

Commercial eye tracking

  • Bojko, A (2006). “Using Eye Tracking to Compare Web Page Designs: A Case Study . ” Journal of Usability Studies . 1 (3).
  • Bojko, A .; Stephenson, A. (2005). “It’s All in the Eye of the User: How can tracking help help usability issues? User Experience . 4 (1).
  • Chandon, Pierre, J. Wesley Hutchinson, and Scott H. Young (2001), Measuring Value of Point-of-Purchase Marketing with Commercial Eye-Tracking Data. [11]
  • Duchowski, AT (2002). “A Breadth-First Survey of Eye Tracking Applications”. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers (BRMIC) . 34 (4): 455-470. doi : 10.3758 / bf03195475 .
  • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (nd) Retrieved July 9, 2006, from [12]
  • Pieters, R .; Wedel, M .; Zhang, J. (2007). “Optimal Advertising Feature Under Competitive Clutter”. Management Science . 51 (11): 1815-1828. doi : 10.1287 / mnsc.1070.0732 .
  • Pieters, R .; Wedel, M. (2007). “Goal Control of Visual Attention to Advertising: The Yarbus Implication”. Journal of Consumer Research . 34 : 224-233. doi : 10.1086 / 519150 .
  • Pieters, R .; Wedel, M. (2004). “Attention Capture and Transfer by Elements of Advertisements”. Journal of Marketing . 68 (2): 36-50. doi : 10.1509 / jmkg.68.2.36.27794 .
  • Thomas RECORDING GmbH, high-speed Eye Tracking Systems for neuro-scientific purposes [13]
  • Weatherhead, James (2005). “Eye on the Future” . British Computer Society, ITNOW Future of Computing . 47 (6): 32-33. doi : 10.1093 / itnow / bwi127 .
  • Wedel, M .; Pieters, R. (2000). “Eye Fixations on Advertisements and Memory for Brands: A Model and Findings”. Marketing Science . 19 (4): 297-312. doi : 10.1287 / mksc.19.4.297.11794 .
  • Wittenstein, Jerran. (2006). EyeTracking sees gold in its technology. [Electronic Version]. San Diego Source, The Daily Transcript, April, 3rd, 2006. [14]