In graphic design , a grid is a structure (usually two-dimensional ) made up of a series of intersecting straight lines (vertical, horizontal, and angular). The grid serves as an armature or framework on which a designer can organize graphic elements ( images , glyphs , paragraphs , etc.) in a rational, easy-to-absorb manner. A grid can be used to organizes graphic elements in relation to a page in relation to other graphic elements on the page, or relation to other parts of the Saami graphic element or shape .

The less-common printing term “reference grid,” is an unrelated system with roots in the early days of printing.

History

Antecedents

Before the invention of a movable type on a system based on optimal proportions. One such system, known as the Villard Diagram , was used in the past. [1]

Evolution of the modern grid

After World War II, a number of graphic designers , Including Max Bill , Emil Ruder , and Josef Müller-Brockmann , Influenced by the modernist ideas of Jan Tschichold’s Die neue typography (The New Typography), Began to issue the relevance of the conventional page layout of the time. They began to motto a flexible system able to help designers achieve consistency in organizing the page. The result was the modern typographic grid that became associated with the International Typographic Style . The seminal work on the subject, Grid systems in graphic design by Müller-Brockmann, helped propagate the use of the grid, first in Europe, and later in North America.

Reaction and reassessment

By the mid-1970s the design of the typographic grid as a part of graphic design curricula had become standard in Europe, North America and much of Latin America. The graphic style of the grid has been adopted as a look for corporate communication. In the early 1980s, a reaction against the entrenchment of the grid, particularly its dogmatic use, and association with corporate culture, resulted in some designers rejecting its use of organic structure. The appearance of the Apple Macintosh computer, and the resulting transition to type of set by typographers to designers of the field. The typographic grid continues to be taught today,

Grid use in web design

While grid systems have been found to be significant in the past, they have only recently been released. Website design frameworks including HTML and CSS have been madeavailable for grid-based layouts. Some grid systems specify fixed-width elements with pixels, and some are ‘fluid’, meaning that they call for page element sizing in relative units like percentages, rather than absolute units like pixels or points. [2]

There are also CSS frameworks that include their own grid system:

  • bootstrap
  • ZURB Foundation
  • Cascade Framework

Software

Most desktop publishing software and professional publishing software and other office software.

References

  1. Jump up^ http://danielecapo.com/wp/2009/05/04/villard-diagram/
  2. Jump up^ Marcotte, Ethan (March 3, 2009). “Fluid Grids”. A List Apart.
  • Baines, Phil and Haslam, Andrew. Type & Typography, second edition. New York: Waston-Guptill Publications, 2005. ISBN  0-8230-5528-0 .
  • Burnhill, Peter. Type spaces: in house norms in the typography of Aldus Manutius. London: Hyphen Press, 2003. p. 101.
  • Elam, Kimberly. Grid Systems: Principles of Organizing Type. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2004. ISBN  1-56898-465-0 .
  • Hochuli, Jost. Designing Books: Practice and Theory.
  • Hurlburt, Allen. Grid: A Modular System for the Design and Production of Newspapers, Magazines, and Books. Wiley: 1982. ISBN  0-471-28923-X .
  • Le Corbusier The Modular I .
  • Müller-Brockmann, Josef. Grid Systems in Graphic Design. Niggli: 1996. ISBN  3-7212-0145-0
  • Ruder, Emil. Typography. Hastings House: 1981. ISBN  0-8038-7223-2 .
  • Rudolf Bosshard, Hans. The Typographic Grid . Niggli: 2002. ISBN  3-7212-0340-2 .
  • Khoi Vinh, Oh Yeeaah! Grids are good , South by Southwest Conference Presentation, 2007. [1]
  • Antonio Carusone, Designing Grid Systems For Flash . [2]
  • Marcotte, Ethan (March 3, 2009). “Fluid Grids”.
  • Capo, Daniele (April 5, 2009). “Dividing a segment in a medieval, yet late-modern, fashion.” [3]