Responsive Web Design ( RWD ) is an approach to web design that makes the web page. Recent work also considers the viewer as part of the viewing context as an extension for RWD  . Content, design and performance are necessary across all devices to ensure usability and satisfaction.    
A site designed with RWD   adapts the layout to the viewing environment by using fluid, proportion-based grids,   flexible images,    and CSS3 media queries ,    an extension of the
@mediarule, in the following ways: 
- The fluid grid concept calls for page element sizing to be in relative units like percentages, rather than absolute units like pixels or points . 
- Flexible image sont également sized in relative units, so as to prevent prevention Them from Their Containing displaying outside element . 
- Media queries allow the page to use different CSS is based on the content of the browser.
Responsive web design has become more important as the amount of mobile traffic accounts for more than half of total internet traffic.  Therefore, Google announced Mobilegeddon in 2015, and started to boost the ratings of sites that are mobile friendly if the search is made from a mobile device.  Responsive web design is an example of user interface plasticity . 
Progressive enhancement based on browser, device, or feature detection
Challenges, and other approaches
Luke Wroblewski has written some of the RWD and mobile design challenges, and has created a catalog of multi-device layout patterns.    He suggests that, compared with a simple RWD approach, device experience or RESS (responsive web design with side-server components) approaches can provide a user experience that is better optimized for mobile devices.    Server-side ” dynamic CSS ” implementation of styles and languages like Sass or Incentivated MML can be part of such an approach with a device capabilities database in order to improve usability. RESS is more expensive to develop, requires more than just customer-side logic, and so tends to be reserved for organizations with larger budgets. Google recommends responsive design for smartphone websites over other approaches. 
ALTHOUGH Many publishers are starting to Implement responsive design, one Ongoing challenge for RWD Is That Some banner advertisements and videos are not fluid. HOWEVER, search advertising and (banner) display advertising media platform targeting specific device size and different advertisement formats for desktop, smartphone, and basic mobile devices. Different landing page URLs can be used for different platforms,  or Ajax can be used to display different variants advertisement was page.    CSS tables permit hybrid fixed + fluid layouts. 
There are many ways of validating and testing RWD designs,  ranging from mobile site validators and mobile emulators  to simultaneous testing tools like Adobe Edge Inspect.  The Chrome, Firefox and Safari browsers and the Chrome console offer responsive design viewport resizing tools, as do third parties.  
Use cases of RWD will expand with increased mobile usage; 51% and are increasing. 
The first website to feature a layout That ADAPTS to browser viewport width Was Audi.com lancé in late 2001,  created by a team at razorfish consistant en Jürgen Spangl and Jim Kalbach (information architecture), Ken Olling (design), and Jan Hoffmann (interface development). Limited browser capabilities meant that for Internet Explorer, the layout could be dynamically in the browser for Netscape, the page had to be reloaded from the server when resized.
Cameron Adams created a demonstration in 2004 that is still online.  By 2008, a number of related terms Such As “flexible”, “liquid”,  “fluid” and “elastic” Were being white used to describe layouts. CSS3 media queries were almost ready for prime time in late 2008 / early 2009.  Ethan Marcotte coined the term responsive web design  (RWD) -and defined it to mean fluid grid / flexible images / media queries-in a May 2010 article in A List Apart .  He described the theory and practice of responsive web design in his brief 2011 book titled Responsive Web Design . Responsive design was listed as # 2 in Top Web Design Trends for 2012 by.net magazine  after progressive enhancement at # 1.
Mashable called 2013 the Year of Responsive Web Design.  Many other sources have recommended responsive design as a cost-effective alternative to mobile applications.
- Em (and rem)
- Adaptive web design
- CSS framework
- Progressive enhancement
- Tableless web design
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- Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (February 29, 2012). “Responsive Design … or RESS” .
- Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (September 12, 2011). “RESS: Responsive Design + Server Side Components” .
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- Jump up^ Rinaldi, Brian (September 26, 2012). “Browser testing … with Adobe Edge Inspect” .
- Jump up^ “Responsive Design View” . Mozilla Developer Network . Retrieved May 21, 2015 .
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- Jump up^ Cashmore, Pete (December 11, 2012). “Why 2013 Is the Year of Responsive Web Design” .