User experience design ( UX , UXD , UED gold XD ) is the process of Enhancing user satisfaction with a product by Improving the usability , accessibility , and pleasure Provided in the interaction with the product. [1] User experience design encompasses traditional human-computer interaction (HCI) design, and extends it by addressing all aspects of a product or service perceived by users. [2]


The field of user experience is a conceptual design discipline and has its roots in human factors and ergonomics , a field that, since the late 1940s, has focused on the interaction between human users, machines, and the contextual environments to design systems that the user’s experience. [3] With the proliferation of workplace computers in the early 1990s, a user experience started to become a concern for designers. It was Donald Norman , a user experience architect, who was a “user experience”, and brought it to a wider audience. [4]

I invented the term because I thought human interface and usability were too narrow. I wanted to cover all aspects of the person’s experience with the system including industrial design graphics, the interface, the physical interaction and the manual. Since then the term has spread widely, so much so that it is starting to lose its meaning.

-  Donald Norman [5]

The term also has a more recent connection to user-centered design , human-computer interaction , and also incorporates elements from similar user-centered design fields.


User experience design includes elements of interaction design , information architecture , user research , and other disciplines, and is concerned with all facts of the overall experience delivered to users. Following is a short analysis of its constituent parts.

Visual design

Visual design, also known as graphic design , user interface design , communication design , and visual communication , represents the aesthetics or look-and-feel of the front end of any user interface . Graphic design is often perceived as visual design. The purpose of visual design is to use visual elements like colors, images, and symbols to convey a message to its audience. Fundamentals of Gestalt psychology and visual perception give a cognitive perspective on how to create effective visual communication. [6]

Information architecture

Main article: Information architecture

Information architecture is the art and science of structuring and organizing information and services to support usability and findability .

In the context of information architecture, information is separate from both knowledge and data, and nebulously between them. It is information about objects. citation needed ] The objects can range from websites, to software applications, to images et al. It is also concerned with metadata : terms used to describe and represent content objects such as documents, people, processes, and organizations.

Navigation design

Navigation design is the way in which the interface elements are placed in order to regulate the users movement through the information architecture and make it simple. [7]

Structuring, organization, and labeling

Structuring is reducing information to its basic building units. Organization involves grouping these units in a distinctive and Labeling means using appropriate wording to support easy navigation and findability.

Finding and managing

Find-ability is the most critical success factor for information architecture. citation needed ] If users are not able to find information without browsing, search or ask, then the find-ability of the information architecture fails. Navigation needs to be clearly conveyed to the satisfaction of the contents.

Interaction design

Main article: Interaction design

There are many key factors to understanding interaction design and how it can be used as a pleasurable end user experience. It is well reconnu clarification needed ] That building great user experience design requires to play a pivotal role in interacting helping define what works best for the users. High demand for user experience and strong focus on the concept of user interaction . While working, interaction designers take several things in consideration. A few of them are: [8]

  • Defining interaction patterns best suited in the context
  • Incorporating user needs during user research
  • Features and information that are important to the user
  • Behavior-like interface drag-drop, selections, and mouse-over actions
  • Effectively communicating strengths of the system
  • Making the intuitive interface by building affordances
  • Maintaining consistency throughout the system.

In the last few years, the role of the designer is to focus on the environment and the environment. [9] Therefore, User Experience Design evolved into a multidisciplinary design branch that involves multiple technical aspects from motion graphics design and animation to programming .


Main article: Usability

Usability is the extent to which a product can be used by specified users. [10]

Usability is attached to all tools used by humans and is extended to both digital and non-digital devices. Thus, it is a subset of the user’s experience but not wholly contained. The section of usability that intersects with user experience is related to humans’ ability to use a system or application. Good usability is essential to a positive user experience. [11]

Usability testing

Main article: Usability testing

Usability testing is a technique used in user-centered  interaction design to evaluate a product by testing it on users. This can be seen as an irreplaceable usability practice, since it gives direct input on how to use the system. It is a measure of how fast a user can perform the tasks to test the efficiency and intuitiveness of a product.


Main article: Accessibility

Accessibility of a system of self-improvement, use and understanding. In terms of user experience design, it can also be related to the overall comprehensibility of information and features. It helps shorten the learning curve associated with the system. Accessibility in many contexts can be related to the ease of use for people with disabilities and comes under usability. [12]

WCAG compliance

Main article: Web Content Accessibility Guidelines

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 covers a wide range of recommendations for making Web content more accessible. Following these guidelines will be made available to a wider range of people with disabilities, including blindness and hearing loss, learning disabilities, cognitive limitations, limited movement, speech disabilities, photosensitivity and combinations of these. Following these guidelines will also often make us more user-friendly. [13] Making content more user-friendly and accessible to all types of users.

Human-computer interaction

Main article: Human-computer interaction

Human-computer interaction is concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and the study of major events surrounding them. [14]

Human-computer interaction is the main contributor to user experience because of its emphasis on human performance rather than mere usability. It provides key research findings which inform the improvement of systems for the people. Human-computer interaction extends its study towards more integrated interactions, such as tangible interactions, which is generally not covered in the practice of user experience. User experience can not be manufactured or designed; it has to be incorporated in the design. Understanding the user ‘s emotional quotient plays a key role while designing a user experience. The first step while designing the user experience is determining the reason to visit the website or use the application in question. Then the user experience can be designed accordingly.

Functional specification

The functional specification is a detailed description of a set of features that is necessary to be included in the product in order to meet the users expectations. [15]


Main article: Design

User experience design incorporates most of the above disciplines to positively impact the overall experience a person has a particular interactive system and its provider. User experience design is most likely to be defined between a user and a system, or a system, or a system, or a system, or a system that is designed to meet the user’s needs and goals.

Typical outputs include:

  • Persona (an archetypal user for whom the product or service is being designed)
  • Wireframes (screen blueprints or storyboards )
  • Prototypes (for interactive or in-the-mind simulation)
  • Written specifications (describing the behavior or design), eg use cases
  • Audit site (usability study of existing assets)
  • Flows and navigation maps
  • User stories or scenarios
  • Sitemaps and content inventory
  • High-fidelity visual mockups (precise visual layout and design of the expected product or interface)

General design process

While designing a product or service for a customer, it is of utmost importance that the designers are on the same page as the customer. All the information collected, plans made, design executed will reflect on the final product. Rigorous analysis must be done before proceeding to the design stage and then be tested to the best of the world. Leading Digital Marketing companies combines three elements to provide the best responsive product to the customer. These are:

  1. Researching about the target audience
  2. Understanding the company’s business goals
  3. And most importantly apply out of the box thinking.

Brainstorming and testing ultimately leads to finalize the design for their customers. Let’s have a detailed look at the step by step process of product design:

  • Collecting information about the problem

The UX designer needs to find out as much as they can about people, processes, and products before the design phase. Designers can do this by meeting with the customers or business stakeholders, or by conducting interviews with users in their home or work spaces. This kind of qualitative research helps designers create products and services that better serve user needs.

  • Getting ready to design

After research, the designer must make sense of the data they’ve collected. Typically this is done through the modeling of users and their environments. User modeling or personas are composite archetypes based on behavior patterns uncovered during research. Personas provide designers a way of thinking and communicating about how to behave, how they think, what they want to achieve and why. [16] Once created, it is useful for the design of the user in particular contexts, which is particularly useful for the design and validation of design concepts. Other types of models include workflow models, artificial models, and physical models.

  • Design

When the designer has a firm grasp on the user’s needs and goals, they begin to sketch out the interaction framework (also known as wireframes ). This stage defines the high-level structure of screen layouts, as well as the product’s flow, behavior, and organization. There are many kinds of materials that can be involved in this iterative phase, from whiteboards to paper prototypes. As the interaction framework establishes an overall structure for product behavior, a parallel process focuses on the visual and industrial designs. The visual design framework defines the experience attributes, the visual language, and the visual style. [17]

Once a solid and stable framework is established, the framework of the user interface at the pixel level. At this point, it is critical for the programming team to collaborate closely with the designer. Their input is necessary to create a design that can not be built.

  • Test and iterate

Usability testing is carried out through prototypes (paper or digital). The target users are given various tasks to perform on the prototypes. Any issues or problems faced by the users are collected as field notes and these notes are used to make changes in the design and reiterate the testing phase. [18] Usability testing is, at its core, a means to “evaluate, not create”. [19]

UX Deliverables

UX designers ‘main goal is to solve the end-users’ problems, and thus the ability to communicate the design to stakeholders and developers is critical to the ultimate success of the design. Regarding UX specification documents, these requirements depend on the customer or the organization involved in designing a product. The four major deliverables are: a title page, an introduction to the feature, wireframes and a version history. [20] Depending on the type of project, the specification may also include flow models, cultural models, personas, user stories, scenarios and any prior user research. Documenting design decisions, in the form of annotated wireframes, gives the developer the necessary information.

Depending on the company, the user may be a jack of all trades. It is not uncommon to see a user experience in the beginning of the lifecycle project, where the problem is defined, and the definition and definition of the information are required.

The following details can be used at each phase of a project:

At the beginning, when the project is more conceptual:

  • Ethnographic research
  • Surveying
  • Customer feedback and testing
  • Focus group administration
  • Non-directed interview
  • Contextual Interview
  • Mental modeling
  • Flow charts
  • Mood boards
  • Card sorting
  • Competitive analysis
  • Contextual Inquiry

While the project is underway:

  • wireframing
  • Heuristic analysis
  • Expert evaluation
  • Pluralistic walkthrough
  • Personas
  • Scenario
  • prototypes
  • System mapping
  • Experience mapping
  • User testing / usability testing

After the project has launched:

  • User testing / usability testing
  • A / B testing
  • Additional wireframing as a result of test results and fine-tuning [21]


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As is the subject of the above mentioned fields of study, incorporating aspects of psychology , anthropology , architecture , sociology , computer science , graphic design , industrial design , cognitive science , and business. Depending on the product, UX may also involve content design disciplines such as communication design , instructional design , and game design . The subject matter of the subject may also warrant cooperation with a subject-matter experton the UX from various backgrounds in business, government, or private groups. More recently, content strategy has come to represent a sub-field of UX.

Graphic designers

Graphic designers focus on the aesthetic appeal of the design. Information is communicated to the users through text and images. Much importance is given to the text and images look and attract the users. Graphic designers have make things like colors, font type, and image rentals. Graphic designers focus on grabbing the user’s attention with the way the design looks. Graphic designers create visual concepts, using computer software or by hand, to communicate ideas that inspire, inform, and captivate consumers. They develop the overall layout and production design for various applications such as advertisements, brochures, magazines, and corporate reports. [22]

Visual designers

The visual designer (VisD) ensures that the visual representation of the design effectively communicates the data and the expectations of the product. At the same time, the visual designer is responsible for conveying the image of the product and creating a positive first impression; this responsibility is shared with the industrial designer if the product involves hardware. In essence a visual designer must aim for maximum usability combined with maximum desirability. [23]

Interaction designers

Interaction designers (IxD) are responsible for understanding and specifying how the product should behave. This work overlaps with the work of both visual and industrial designers in a couple of important ways. When designing physical products, interaction designers must work with industrial designers. Interaction designers cross paths with visual designers throughout the project. Visual designers guides the discussions of the brand and emotive aspects of the experience, Interaction designers communicate the priority of information, flow, and functionality in the interface. [24]

Testing the design

Main article: Usability testing

Usability testing is the most common method used by designers to test their designs. The basic idea behind conducting a usability test is to check the design of a product. While carrying out usability testing, two things are being tested for: whether the design of the product is successful and it is not successful, how can it be improved. While designers are testing, they are testing the design and not the user. Also, every design is evolving. The designers carry out usability testing at every stage of the design process. [25]


User experience design is integrated into software development and other forms of application. Every new software must keep pace with the rapid progress. The benefits associated with the integration of these design principles include:

  • Avoiding unnecessary product features
  • Simplifying documentation and customer-centric technical publications
  • Improving the usability of the system and its customers
  • Expediting design and development
  • Incorporating business and marketing goals while protecting the user’s freedom of choice

See also

  • Portal design
  • Action research
  • Activity-centered design
  • Chief Experience Officer (CXO)
  • Component-based usability testing
  • Contextual inquiry
  • Customer experience
  • Design thinking
  • Empathic design
  • Needs analysis
  • Paper prototyping
  • Participatory design
  • Process-centered design
  • Thanatosensitivity
  • Transgenerational design
  • Ubiquitous computing
  • Usability engineering
  • User-design
  • User experience evaluation
  • User interface design
  • World Usability Day
  • List of buzzwords


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