Web design encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of websites. The different areas of the web design include web graphic design; design interface ; authoring, including standardized software and proprietary software ; user experience design ; and search engine optimization . Often many individuals will work in teams covering different aspects of the design process. [1] The term web design is usually used to describe the design process relating to the front-end (client side). Web design partially overlaps web engineering in the broader scope ofweb development . Web designers are expected to-have an awareness of usability and if Their role Involves Creating mark up aussi Then They Are expected to be up to date with web accessibility guidelines.

History

1988-2001

Although web design has a fairly recent history, it can be linked to other areas such as graphic design. However, web design can also be seen from a standpoint. It has become a large part of people’s lives. It is hard to imagine the Internet without animated graphics, different styles of typography, background, and music.

The start of the web and web design

In 1989, while working at CERN, Tim Berners-Lee proposed to create a global hypertext project, which became the World Wide Web . During 1991 to 1993 the World Wide Web was born. Text-only pages could be viewed using a simple line-mode browser. [2] In 1993 Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina , created the Mosaic browser . At the time there were multiple browsers, however the majority of them were Unix-based and naturally text heavy. There had been no integrated approach to graphic design elements such as images or sounds. The Mosaic browser broke this mold. [3] The W3Cwas created in October 1994 to “lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing common protocols that promote its evolution and ensure its interoperability.” [4] This discourse from a monopolizing a browser and programming language, which could have the effect of the World Wide Web as a whole. The W3C continues to set standards, which can today be seen with JavaScript. In 1994 Andreessen formed Communications Corp. That later est devenu Known As Netscape Communications , the Netscape 0.9 browser. Netscape created its own HTML tags without a look at the traditional standards process. For example, Netscape 1.1 included tags for changing backgrounds and formatting text with tables on web pages. Throughout 1996 to 1999 thebrowser wars began, as Microsoft and Netscape fought for ultimate browser dominance. During this time there were many new technologies in the field, notably Cascading Style Sheets , JavaScript , and Dynamic HTML . On the whole, the browser competition has been successful and has developed a rapid pace. [5]

Evolution of web design

In 1996, Microsoft released its first competitive browser, which was complete with its own features and tags. It was also the first browser to support style sheets, which was seen as an obscure technical authoring. [5] The HTML markup for tables was originally intended for displaying tabular data. However, designers have quickly found the potential of using multi-column layouts that were otherwise not possible. At this time, the design and good aesthetics of the structure, and the lack of attention to detail and web accessibility. HTML sites were limited in their design options, even more so with earlier versions of HTML. To create complex designs, many web designers had to use complex tables or even use blank spacer .GIF images to stop empty table cells from collapsing. [6] CSS was introduced in December 1996 by the W3C to support presentation and layout. This web site is HTML, HTML, HTML, HTML, HTML, HTML , Web design, and more .

In 1996, Flash (known as FutureSplash) was developed. At the time, the Flash content development tool has been compared to the HTML, the animated GIFs and JavaScript , a limited precursor to ActionScript , and a timeline . However, because Flash plug-in is required , many web developers have avoided using it. Instead, designers reverted to gif animations (if they did not use motion graphics altogether) and JavaScript for widgets. But the benefits of Flash made it more likely to be more effective and more efficient. [6]

End of the first browser wars

During 1998 Netscape released Netscape Communicator code under an open source license , enabling thousands of developers to participate in improving the software. However, they have to start from the beginning, which has been expanded to a complete application platform. [5] The Web Standards Project Was FORMED Promoted browser and compliance with HTML and CSS standards by Creating acid1 , Acid2 , and Acid3tests. 2000 was a big year for Microsoft. Internet Explorer was released for Mac; HTML 4.01 and CSS 1, raising the bar in terms of standards compliance. It was also the first browser to fully support the PNG image format. [5] During this time Netscape was sold to AOL and this was seen as Netscape’s official loss to Microsoft in the browser wars. [5]

2001-2012

Since the beginning of the 21st century the web has become more and more integrated into peoples lives. This has happened the technology of the web has also moved on. There have been significant changes in the way people use the web, and this has changed.

Since the end of the wars when? ] new browsers have been released. Many of these are open source meaning they are more supportive of new standards. The new options are considered by many weasel words ] to be better than Microsoft’s Internet Explorer .

The W3C has released new standards for HTML ( HTML5 ) and CSS ( CSS3 ), as well as new JavaScript API’s . when? ] While the term HTML5 is only used to Refer to the New Version of HTML and Some of the API’s JavaScript It has Become common to use it to Refer to the Entire suite of new standards (HTML5, CSS3 and JavaScript).

Tools and technologies

Web designers use a variety of different tools depending on which part of the production process they are involved in. These tools are updated over time by newer standards and software. Web designers use both vector and rastergraphics editors to create web-formatted imagery or design prototypes. Technologies used to create websites include W3C standards like HTML and CSS, which can be hand-coded or generated by WYSIWYG editing software . Other tools web designers might use include mark up validators [7] and other testing tools for usability and accessibility to ensure their websites meet web accessibility guidelines. [8]

Skills and techniques

Marketing and communication design

Marketing and communication design on a website can identify what works for its target market. This can be an age group or particular strand of culture; thus the designer can understand the trends of its audience. Designers May aussi Understand the kind of website designing They Are, meaning, for example, that (B2B) business-to-business website design considerations might Differ Greatly from a consumer website Targeted Such As a retail or entertainment website. Careful consideration may be made to ensure that the aesthetics or overall design of a site of clarity and accuracy of the content of the web navigation , [9]especially on a B2B website. Designers may also consider the reputation of the homeowner or the site to be profitable to make sure they are portrayed favorably.

User experience design and interactive design

User understanding of the content of a website often depends on the understanding of the website. This is part of the user experience design . User experience is related to layout, clear instructions and labeling on a website. How well a user can interact Understands How They May aussi website was dependent on the interactive design of the site. If a user perceives the usefulness of the website, they are more likely to continue using it. Users who are skilled and well versed with a more distinctive, yet less intuitive or less user-friendlywebsite interface useful nonetheless. However, users with less experience are less likely to see the advantages of using an intuitive website interface. This drives the trend for a better user experience and ease of access. [10] Much of the user experience design and interactive design are considered in the user interface design .

Advanced interactive functions may require plug-insif not advanced coding language skills. Choosing whether or not to use interactivity that requires plug-ins is a critical decision in user experience design. If the plug-in does not come pre-installed with more browsers, it’s a risk that the user will not have the patience or the patience to install a plug-in just to access the content. If the function requires advanced coding language skills, it can be too costly in time or money to be more expensive. There is also a risk that advanced interactivity may be incompatible with older browsers or hardware configurations. Publishing a function that does not work reliably is easier for the user than making no attempt. It depends on the audience

Page layout

Part of the user interface is affected by the quality of the page layout . For example, a designer may consider the site of page layout Page pixel width can also be considered in the design layout. The most popular fixed-width websites generally have the most popular screen size, most popular screen size. Most pages are also center-aligned for the subject of aesthetics on larger screens.

Fluid layouts increased in popularity around 2000 as an alternative to HTML-based table- layout and grid-based design in both page layout design and technical coding, but were very slow to be adopted. [note 1] Reviews This was due to considerations of screen reading devices and varying, windows sizes qui designers-have no control over. Accordingly, a design may be broken down into embedded parts (sidebars, content blocks, embedded advertisingareas, navigation areas) which are sent to the browser by the browser, as best it can. The browser can make the user-specific layout, but not fixed-width layouts. ALTHOUGH Such a display May Often changing the relative position of Staff glad units, sidebars May be displaced below body text Rather than to the side of it. This is a more flexible display than a hard-coded grid-based layout that does not fit the device window. In particular, the relative position of content blocks may change while leaving the content within the unaffected block. This also minimizes the user’s need to horizontally scroll the page.

Responsive Web Design is a new approach, based on CSS3, and a deeper level of per-device specification within the page’s stylesheet through enhanced CSS @mediarule.

Typography

Web designers may choose to limit the variety of the type of site, or to use a similar style, instead of using a wide range of typefaces or type styles . Most browsers recognize a specific number of safe fonts, which designers use in order to avoid complications.

Safari 3.1, Opera 10 and Mozilla Firefox 3.5. This site has a greater interest in web typography , as well as the use of downloading.

Most site layouts include negative space to break textures and also avoid center-aligned text. [11]

Motion graphics

The page layout and user interface may also be affected by the use of motion graphics. The choice of whether or not to use motion graphics may depend on the target market for the website. Motion graphics may be expected or at least better received by an entertainment-oriented website. However, a website may be useful for the purpose of advertising and advertising. This does not mean that it is more important than the content of the subject. In case, motion graphic design can make the difference between more effective visuals and distracting visuals.

Motion graphics that are not initiated by the website visitor can produce accessibility issues. The World Wide Web consortium accessibility standards require that the site be able to disable the animations. [12]

Quality of code

Website designers may consider it to be good practice to conform to standards. This is usually done via a description specifying what the element is doing. Failure to conform to standards may not be possible, but can not be reconciled to the correct layout of pages for readability and error. This includes errors in code, more organized layout for code, and making sure that IDs and classes are identified properly. Poorly-coded pages are sometimes colloquially called tag soup . Validating via W3C [7]can only be done when a declaration is made, which is used to highlight errors in code. The system identifies the errors and areas that do not conform to web design standards. This information can be corrected by the user. [13]

Generated content

There are two ways websites are generated: statically or dynamically.

Static websites

Main article: Static web page

A static website stores a unique file for every page of a static website. Each time this page is requested, the same content is returned. This content is created once, during the design of the website. It is usually manually authored, but some sites are used for an automated creation process, and they are stored as long as they are. These automatically-created static sites became more popular around 2015, with generators such as Jekyll and Adobe Muse . [14]

The benefits of a static website are that they are simpler to host, their server only needs to serve static content, not execute server-side scripts. This required less server administration and had less chance of exposing security holes. They could also serve pages quickly, on low-cost server hardware. These advantages are more important, and virtual servers are offered at low cost.

Almost all websites have some static content, as well as supporting images and stylesheets are usually static.

Dynamic websites

Main article: Dynamic web page

Dynamic websites are generated on the fly and use server-side technology to generate webpages. They Typically extract Their happy from one or more back-end databases: some are database queries across a relational database to query a catalog or to summarise numeric information, others May use a paper database Such As MongoDB gold NoSQL to store larger units of happy, such as blog posts or wiki articles.

In the design process, pages are often mocked-up or wireframed using static pages. The skillset needed to develop dynamic web pages is much broader than for a static pages, involving server-side and database coding as well as client-side interface design. Even medium-sized dynamic projects are almost always a team effort.

When dynamic web pages first developed, they were typically coded directly in such languages ​​as Perl , PHP or ASP . Some of these, particularly PHP and ASP, used a ‘template’ approach where a server-side page resembled the structure of the completed client-side and inserted into places defined by ‘tags’. This was a quicker way of developing coding language such as Perl.

Both of these approaches have been supplanted for many websites by higher-level application-focused tools such as content management systems . These methods are designed to be used by many people, such as a time-sequenced blog , a thematic magazine or news site, a wiki or a user forum. These tools make the implementation of such a site very easy, and a purely organizational and design-based task, without any any coding.

Homepage design

Usability experts, including Jakob Nielsen and Kyle Soucy, have often emphasized the importance of homepage design and the most important page on a website. [15] [16] [17] [18] However, these practitioners were starting to find that bypassing the homepage, going directly to internal content, through e-newsletters and RSS feeds. [19] Leading practitioners to argue that homepages are less important than most people think. [20] [21] [22] [23] Jared Spool argued in 2007 that a site was homepage. [24]

In 2012 and 2013, carousels (also called ‘sliders’ and ‘rotating banners’) have become an extremely popular design element on homepages, often used in a showcase. [25] [26] Many practitioners argue that carousels are an ineffective design element and hurt a website’s search engine optimization and usability. [26] [27] [28]

occupations

There are two primary jobs involved in creating a website: the web designer and web developer , who often works closely together on a website. [29] The web designers are responsible for the visual aspect, which includes the layout, coloring and typography of a web page. Web designers will also have a working knowledge of markup languages Such as HTML and CSS, ALTHOUGH the extent of Their knowledge will Differ from one web designer to Reviews another. Particularly in smaller organizations, they may need a full set of responsibilities for the development of the full web page, while larger organizations may have a responsible web designer for the visual aspect alone. [30]

Further jobs which may be involved in the creation of a website include:

  • Graphic designers to create visuals for the website such as logos, layouts and buttons
  • Internet marketing specialists to help maintain web presence through strategic solutions on the web site
  • SEO writers to research and recommend the answers to the problem
  • Internet copywriter to create the written page of the site [1]
  • User experience (UX) incorporates aspects of user centered design, user testing, user design design, user testing, interaction design, and occasionally visual design.

See also

See also

  • Aesthetics
  • Color theory
  • Composition (visual arts)
  • Cross-browser
  • Design education
  • Design principles and elements
  • Drawing
  • Dark pattern
  • European Design Awards
  • First Things First 2000 manifesto
  • Graphic art software
  • Graphic design occupations
  • Graphics
  • Information graphics
  • List of graphic design institutions
  • List of notable graphic designers
  • logo
  • Progressive Enhancement
  • Guide style
  • Web 2.0
  • Web colors
  • Web safe fonts
  • Web usability
  • Web application framework
  • Website architecture
  • Website builder
  • Website wireframe

Related disciplines

  • Communication design
  • copywriting
  • Desktop publishing
  • Digital illustration
  • Graphic design
  • Interaction design
  • Information design
  • Light-on-dark color scheme
  • Marketing Communications
  • Motion graphic design
  • New media
  • Search engine optimization (SEO)
  • Technical Writer
  • Typography
  • User experience
  • User interface design
  • Web development
  • Web animations

Notes

  1. Jump up^ <table> -based markup andspacer .GIFimages
  1. ^ Jump up to:b Lester, Georgina. “Different jobs and responsibilities of various people involved in creating a website” . Arts Wales UK . Retrieved 2012-03-17 .
  2. Jump up^ “Longer Biography” . Retrieved 2012-03-16 .
  3. Jump up^ “Mosaic Browser” (PDF) . Retrieved 2012-03-16 .
  4. Jump up^ Zwicky, ED, Cooper, S and Chapman, DB (2000). Building Internet Firewalls . United States: O’Reily & Associates. p. 804. ISBN  1-56592-871-7.
  5. ^ Jump up to:e Niederst, Jennifer (2006). Web Design In a Nutshell . United States of America: O’Reilly Media. pp. 12-14. ISBN  0-596-00987-9 .
  6. ^ Jump up to:b Chapman, Cameron, The Evolution of Web Design , Six Revisions, archived from the original is 30 October 2013
  7. ^ Jump up to:b “W3C Markup Validation Service” .
  8. Jump up^ W3C. “Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)” .
  9. Jump up^ THORLACIUS, LISBETH (2007). “The Role of Aesthetics in Web Design” . Nordicom Review (28): 63-76 . Retrieved 2014-07-18 .
  10. Jump up^ Castañeda, JA Francisco; Muñoz-Leiva, Teodoro Luque (2007). “Web Acceptance Model (WAM): Moderating effects of user experience”. Information & Management . 44 : 384-396. doi : 10.1016 / j.im.2007.02.003.
  11. Jump up^ Stone, John (2009-11-16). “20 Do’s and Don’ts of Effective Web Typography” . Retrieved 2012-03-19 .
  12. Jump up^ World Wide Web Consortium Web Content Accessibility Guidelines Understanding 2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide
  13. Jump up^ W3C QA. “My Web site is standard! And yours?” . Retrieved 2012-03-21.
  14. Jump up^ Christensen, Mathias Biilmann (2015-11-16). “Static Website Generators Reviewed: Jekyll, Middleman, Roots, Hugo” . Smashing Magazine . Retrieved 2016-10-26 .
  15. Jump up^ Soucy, Kyle, Is Your Homepage Doing What It Should? , Usable Interface, archived from the original on 8 June 2012
  16. Jump up^ Nielsen & Tahir 2001.
  17. Jump up^ Nielsen, Jakob (10 November 2003), The Ten Most Violated Homepage Design Guidelines , Nielsen Norman Group, archived from the originalon 5 October 2013
  18. Jump up^ Knight, Kayla (20 August 2009), Essential Tips for Designing a Effective Homepage , Six Revisions, archived from the original on 21 August 2013
  19. Jump up^ Spool, Jared (September 29, 2005), Is Home Page Design Relevant Anymore? , User Interface Engineering, archived from the original on 16 September 2013
  20. Jump up^ Chapman, Cameron (15 September 2010), 10 Usability Tips Based on Research Studies , Six Revisions, archived from the original on 2 September 2013
  21. Jump up^ Gócza, Zoltán, Myth # 17: The homepage is your most important page , archived from the original on 2 June 2013
  22. Jump up^ McGovern, Gerry (18 April 2010), The decline of the homepage , archived from the original on 24 May 2013
  23. Jump up^ Porter, Joshua (24 April 2006), Prioritizing Time Design: A Long Tail Approach , User Interface Engineering, archived from the original on 14 May 2013
  24. Jump up^ Spool, Jared (6 August 2007), Usability Tools Podcast: Home Page Design , archived from the original on 29 April 2013
  25. Jump up^ Bates, Chris (9 October 2012), Best practices in carousel design for effective web marketing , Smart Insights, archived from the original on 3 April 2013
  26. ^ Jump up to:b Messner, Katie (22 April 2013), Image Carousels: Getting Control of the Merry-Go-Round , Usability.gov, archived from the original on 10 October 2013
  27. Jump up^ Jones, Harrison (19 June 2013), Homepage Sliders: Bad For SEO, Bad For Usability , archived from the original on 22 November 2013
  28. Jump up^ Laja, Peep (27 September 2012), Do not Use Automatic Image Sliders or Carousels, Ignore the Fad , ConversionXL, archived from the original on 25 November 2013
  29. Jump up^ Oleksy, Walter (2001). Careers in Web Design . New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. pp. 9-11. ISBN  9780823931910 .
  30. Jump up^ “Web Designer” . Retrieved 2012-03-19 .