Website localization is the process of adapting an existing website to local language and culture in the target market . [1] It is the process of adapting a website to a different linguistic and cultural context [2] – involving much more than the simple translation of text. This modification process must reflect specific language and cultural preferences in the content, images and overall design and requirements of the site – all while maintaining the integrity of the website. Culturally adapted web sites reduce the amount of cognitive efforts of visitors to the site to process information, making navigation easier and attitudes towards the web site more favorable. [3]The modification of the website must have a new view of the audience. [2] Website localization aims to make a website so that it seems “natural”, to its viewers despite the cultural differences between the creators and the audience. [4] Two factors are involved-programming expertise and linguistic / cultural knowledge. [1]

The proliferation of website localization is the result of the popularity of computer and Internet users. People all over the world treat the Internet. These people do not speak the same language. As a result, website localization has become one of the primary tools for global business expansion. [5]

Due to website communication multiple multiple cultures for multiple needs. Site localization involves mixed strategies, organizations tend to maintain a global image while using localization to local users. [6] The challenge of website localization has become more important. As web design becomes more congruent with national culture, it will foster online consumer purchasing. [3] Creators take into account the language, education level, belief and value systems, and traditions and habits of the target culture in order to optimize results. [3]

Process

Website localization is more than mere translation . [7] Translating only solves partial language problems. Measurement units must be converted; images and text are modified to appeal to the target culture. [7]

The process of localization is complex and involves three different levels of adaptation. [8] First is translation. Website localization involves adapting any text being used in the language of the country. It is important that translation of information be “clear and understandable” to avoid cultural misunderstanding or offense. [2] In order to translate, the “target culture” must be known. [9] Second is the actual localization, which includes translation and other efforts to ensure that the adaptation of textual materials, visual displays, illustrations and graphics are “linguistically and culturally appropriate for the local target.” [2] Target local is understood as the “market segment defined by criteria Including language, currency, and Perhaps educational level or income bracket. ” [10] Among the Many technical Elements qui peut être localized are: date and time formats, currency formats, number formats, address and telephone number formats units of measure and connection speed. [10] In order to ensure effective communication during the localization process, it is important to consider the following items: information architecture , theme and navigation, graphics , photographs, audio, and visual. [9] Third is internationalization, which argues that the software is fully compatible with the technology of the country in question.

There are two important considerations in the process of localization. The first is to focus on the demands of the user. [2] The readers of the “localized version of the website” want to be able to read and understand the pages that make sense to them. [2] A second consideration is to take into account the goals of the client, whether an institution, government or individual, for example. [2]

Backend localization

Many elements of a website that are different to the local of the client, or none at all. For example, the system is created on the right side of the coin in which the customer is located. [11]

  • Website Analytics Software: [11] This software can be created generally, and then applied to each of the localized domains.
  • Site Search: Results can be reviewed using an algorithm that can be used with metadata . For example, a consumer who makes a query in the United States should not be shown in Portugal. [11]
  • Testimonials: Comments and feedback are often a vital part of a website. Localization efforts usually only include censorship. This can be done much by software, however human review is sometimes necessary. [11]
  • Storage Information: Databases are often used to store large amounts of information. They may be used as local information, more information pertaining to local information. [11]

The business of website localization

Using website localization to its best advantage is vital to any business seeking to move into international markets. With more and more companies looking for these lucrative markets, website localization has become quite profitable. [2] The business side involves global and local coordination; production and operations, including finance; sales and marketing; language translation, including technology and linguistic coordination; software engineering, as well as design. [10] [12] The higher the rate of the target population, the more likely it is for localization to be implemented and used effectively. [3]

See also

  • Internationalization and localization
  • Language localization

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:b Payne, Neil (8 October 2004). “Culture and Website Localization” . WebProNews . Archived from the original on 29 November 2010 . Retrieved 29 November 2010 .
  2. ^ Jump up to:h Sandrini, Peter. “Website Localization and Translation”(PDF) . MuTra 2005 – Challenges of Multidimensional Translation: Conference Proceedings . EU-High-Level Scientific Conference Series (131-138) . Retrieved 26 February 2014 .
  3. ^ Jump up to:d Shneor, Rotem (2014-02-28). “Influences of culture, geography, and infrastructure on localization . Cross Cultural Management . 19 (3): 352-374 . Retrieved 2017-12-06 .
  4. Jump up^ Shneor, Rodem (2012). “Influences of culture, geography and infrastructure on localization localization decisions” . Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal . 19 (3): 352-374. doi : 10.1108 / 13527601211247099 . Retrieved 19 March 2014 .
  5. Jump up^ “Website Localization” . Asian Absolute . Retrieved 25 May 2016 .
  6. Jump up^ Pym, Anthony (26 February 2014). “Oxford Handbooks” .
  7. ^ Jump up to:b Tan Shannon (6 August 2001). “Translators go beyond language as Web sites cross borders” . The Miami Herald . Archived from the original on 29 November 2010 . Retrieved 29 November 2010 .
  8. Jump up^ “What is Localization?” . GX Localizations . Retrieved 26 February2014 .
  9. ^ Jump up to:b Stanley, John (1999). SIGDOC ’99 Proceedings of the 17th annual international conference on Computer documentation (PDF) . New York, NY: ACM. pp. 127-129. ISBN  1-58113-072-4 .
  10. ^ Jump up to:c Pym, Anthony (2011). “Website localization” (PDF) .
  11. ^ Jump up to:e Lako, Cristian. “The Elements of the Website Localizations Process” . Studia Universitatis Petru Major. Philogia . Universitatea Petru Maior . Retrieved 28 February 2014 .
  12. Jump up^ Wandrianne, Dias. “The Business Behind Translation” . Retrieved 26 February 2014 .